Section on Neural Gene Expression

Selected Bibliography

Here are W. Scott Young's Pubmed, ResearcherID (A-9333-2009), and Web of Knowledge listings.

  1. Williams Avram SK, Lee HJ, Fastman J, Cymerblit-Sabba A, Smith A, Vincent M, Song J, Granovetter MC, Lee SH, Cilz NI, Stackmann M, Chaturvedi R, Young WS. NMDA Receptor in Vasopressin 1b Neurons Is Not Required for Short-Term Social Memory, Object Memory or Aggression. Front Behav Neurosci. 13:218. [Epub Nov 8] 2019.
  2. Smith AS, Korgan AC, Young WS. Oxytocin delivered nasally or intraperitoneally reaches the brain and plasma of normal and oxytocin knockout mice. Pharmacol Res. 146:104324. [Epub Jun 22] 2019.
  3. Cilz NI, Cymerblit-Sabba A, Young WS. Oxytocin and vasopressin in the rodent hippocampus. Genes Brain Behav. e12535. [Epub Dec 10] 2019. Review.
  4. Young WS, Song J, Mezey É. Hybridization Histochemistry of Neural Transcripts. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 82:1.3.1-1.3.27. [Epub Jan 22] 2018.
  5. Mayer B, Németh K, Krepuska M, Myneni VD, Maric D, Tisdale JF, Hsieh MM, Uchida N, Lee HJ, Nemeth MJ, Holmbeck K, Noguchi CT, Rogers H, Dey S, Hansen A, Hong J, Chow I, Key S, Szalayova I, Pagani J, Markó K, McClain-Caldwell I, Vitale-Cross L, Young WS, Brownstein MJ, Mezey É. Vasopressin stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of red blood cell precursors and improves recovery from anemia. Sci Transl Med. 9(418). [Epub Nov 29] 2017.
  6. Oettl LL, Ravi N, Schneider M, Scheller MF, Schneider P, Mitre M, da Silva Gouveia M, Froemke RC, Chao MV, Young WS, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Grinevich V, Shusterman R, Kelsch W. Oxytocin Enhances Social Recognition by Modulating Cortical Control of Early Olfactory Processing. Neuron. 90:609-21. [Epub Apr 21] 2016.
  7. Patial S, Stumpo DJ, Young WS, Ward JM, Flake GP, Blackshear PJ. Effects of Combined Tristetraprolin/Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Deficiency on the Splenic Transcriptome. Mol Cell Biol. 36:1395-411. [Epub Apr 15] 2016.
  8. Smith AS, Williams Avram SK, Cymerblit-Sabba A, Song J, Young WS. Targeted activation of the hippocampal CA2 area strongly enhances social memory. Mol. Psychiat. [Epub Jan 5] 2016.
  9. Pagani JH, Williams Avram SK, Cui Z, Song J, Mezey É, Senerth JM, Baumann MH, Young WS. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only. Genes Brain Behav. 14:167-76. [Epub Mar 5] 2015.
  10. Pagani JH, Zhao M, Cui Z, Williams Avram SK, Caruana DA, Dudek SM, Young WS. Role of the vasopressin 1b receptor in rodent aggressive behavior and synaptic plasticity in hippocampal area CA2. Mol Psychiatry. 20:490-9. [Epub May 27, 2014] 2015.
  11. Cui Z, Gerfen CR, Young WS. Hypothalamic and other connections with the dorsal CA2 area of the mouse hippocampus. J Comp Neurol 521:1844-1866 [Epub Nov 21, 2012] 2013.
  12. Sanek NA, Young WS. Investigating the in vivo expression patterns of mir-7 microRNA family members in the adult mouse brain. MicroRNA 1:11-8 [Epub May] 2012.
  13. Pobbe RL, Pearson BL, Defensor EB, Bolivar VJ, Young WS, Lee HJ, Blanchard DC, Blanchard RJ. Oxytocin receptor knockout mice display deficits in the expression of autism-related behaviors. Horm Behav. 61:436-44 [Epub Nov 9, 2011] 2012.
  14. Malkesman O, Austin DR, Tragon T, Wang G, Rompala G, Hamidi AB, Cui Z, Young WS, Nakazawa K, Zarate CA, Manji HK, Chen G. Acute d-serine treatment produces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 15:1135-48 [Epub Sep 12, 2011] 2012.
  15. Pagani JH, Lee HJ, Young WS. Postweaning, forebrain-specific perturbation of the oxytocin system impairs fear conditioning. Genes Brain Behav. 10:710-9 [Epub Jul 1, 2011] 2011.
  16. Mok SI, Munasinghe JP, Young WS. Infusion-based manganese-enhanced MRI: a new imaging technique to visualize the mouse brain. Brain Struct Funct. 217:107-14 [Epub May 20, 2011] 2012.
  17. Macbeth AH, Stepp JE, Lee HJ, Young WS, Caldwell HK. Normal maternal behavior, but increased pup mortality, in conditional oxytocin receptor knockout females. Behav Neurosci. 124:677-85, 2010.
  18. Roper J, O'Carroll AM, Young W, Lolait S. The vasopressin Avpr1b receptor: molecular and pharmacological studies. Stress. 14:98-115 [Epub Sep 9, 2010] 2011. Review. Erratum in: Stress. 14:111, 2011.
  19. Lee HJ, Pagani J, Young WS. Using transgenic mouse models to study oxytocin's role in the facilitation of species propagation. Brain Res. 1364:216-24 [Epub Aug 20] 2010.
  20. Caldwell HK, Dike OE, Stevenson EL, Storck K, Young WS. Social dominance in male vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice. Horm Behav. 58:257-63 [Epub Mar 16] 2010.
  21. Macbeth AH, Edds JS, Young WS. Housing conditions and stimulus females: a robust social discrimination task for studying male rodent social recognition. Nat. Protoc. 4: 1574-81 [Epub Oct 8] 2009.
  22. Macbeth AH, Lee HJ, Edds J, Young WS. Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor underlie intrastrain, but not interstrain, social recognition. Genes Brain Behav. 8: 558-67 [Epub May 21] 2009.
  23. Lee, H-J, Macbeth, AH, Pagani, J, Young WS. Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life. Prog. Neurobiol. 88:127-51 [Epub Apr 10] 2009.
  24. Caldwell HK, Young WS. Persistence of reduced aggression in vasopressin 1b receptor knockout mice on a more "wild" background. Physiol. Behav. 97:131-4 [Epub Feb 10] 2009.
  25. DeVito LM, Konigsberg R, Lyyken C, Sauvage M, Young WS, Eichenbaum H. Vasopressin 1b receptor knockout impairs memory for temporal processing and social interactions: a selective role for CA2 in memory. J. Neurosci. 29:2676-83, 2009. Erratum 29:5044, 2009.
  26. Lee H-J, Caldwell HK, Macbeth AH, Tolu SG, Young WS. A Conditional knockout mouse line of the oxytocin receptor. Endocrinology 149:3256-63 [Epub Mar 20] 2008.
  27. Caldwell HK, Stephens SL, Young WS. Oxytocin as a natural antipsychotic: a study using oxytocin knockout mice. Mol. Psychiat. 14:190-6 [Epub Jan 29] 2008.
  28. Caldwell HK, Lee H-J, Macbeth AH, Young WS. Vasopressin: behavioral roles of an "original" neuropeptide. Prog. Neurobiol. 84:1-24 [Epub Nov 4, 2007] 2008.
  29. Wersinger SR, Temple, JL, Caldwell HK, Young WS. Inactivation of the oxytocin and the vasopressin 1b receptor genes, but not the vasopressin 1a receptor gene, differentially impair the Bruce effect in laboratory mice (Mus musculus). Endocrinology 149:116-21 [Epub Oct 18, 2007] 2008.
  30. Scattoni ML, McFarlane HG, Zhodzishsky V, Caldwell HK, Young WS, Ricceri L, Crawley JN. Reduced ultrasonic vocalizations in vasopressin 1b knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 187:371-8 [Epub Oct 7, 2007] 2008.
  31. Yang M, Scattoni ML, Zhodzishsky V, Chen T, Caldwell HK, Young WS, Mcfarlane HG, Crawley JN. Social approach behaviors are similar on conventional versus reverse lighting cycles, and in replications across cohorts, in BTBR T+ tf/J, C57BL/6J, and vasopressin receptor 1b mutant mice. Front Behav Neurosci. 1:1 [Epub Oct 7] 2007.
  32. Crawley JN, Chen T, Puri A, Washburn R, Sullivan TL, Hill JM, Young NB, Nadler JJ, Moy SS, Young LJ, Caldwell HK, Young WS. Social approach behaviors in oxytocin knockout mice: Comparison of two independent lines tested in different laboratory environments. Neuropeptides. 41:145-63 [Epub April 7, 2007].
  33. Wersinger SR, Caldwell HK, Christiansen M, Young WS. Disruption of the vasopressin 1b receptor gene impairs the attack component of aggressive behavior in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 6:653-60 [Epub Dec 20, 2006] 2007.
  34. Lolait SJ, Stewart LQ, Jessop DS, Young WS, O'Carroll AM. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress in mice lacking functional vasopressin V1b receptors. Endocrinology. 148:849-56 [Epub Nov 22, 2006] 2007.
  35. Wersinger SR, Caldwell HK, Martinez L, Gold P, Hu SB, Young WS. Vasopressin 1a receptor knockout mice have a subtle olfactory deficit but normal aggression. Genes Brain Behav. 6:540-51, [Epub Nov 3, 2006] 2007.
  36. Caldwell HK, Stewart J, Wiedholz LM, Millstein RA, Iacangelo A, Holmes A, Young WS, Wersinger SR. The acute intoxicating effects of ethanol are not dependent on the vasopressin 1a or 1b receptors. Neuropeptides. 40:325-37 [Epub Oct 12] 2006.
  37. Lee H-L, Palkovits M, Young WS. miR-7b, a microRNA up-regulated in the hypothalamus after chronic hyperosmolar stimulation, inhibits Fos translation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 15669-74 [Epub Oct. 6] 2006.
  38. Young WS, Li J, Wersinger SR, Palkovits M. The vasopressin 1b receptor is prominent in the hippocampal area CA2 where it is unaffected by restraint stress or adrenalectomy. Neuroscience. 143:1031-9 [Epub Oct 3] 2006.
  39. Caldwell HK, Young WS. Oxytocin and Vasopressin: Genetics and Behavioral Implications in Lim, R. (ed.) Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology, 3rd edition, Springer, New York, pp. 573-607, 2006.
  40. Wersinger SR, Kelliher KR, Zufall F, Lolait SJ, O'Carroll A-M Young WS. Social motivation is reduced in vasopressin 1b receptor null mice despite normal performance in an olfactory discrimination task. Horm. Behav.46: 638-645, 2004.
  41. Young WS, Gainer H. Transgenesis and the study of expression, cellular targeting and function of oxytocin, vasopressin and their receptors. Neuroendocrinology 78: 185-203, 2003.
  42. Foletta VC, Brown FD, Young WS. Cloning of rat ARHGAP4/C1, a RhoGAP family member expressed in the nervous system that colocalizes with the Golgi complex and microtubules. Mol. Brain Res. 107: 65-79, 2002.
  43. Wersinger SR, Ginns EI, O'Carroll A-M, Lolait SJ, Young WS. Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout reduces aggressive behavior in male mice. Mol. Psychiat. 7: 975-84, 2002.
  44. Hamelink C, Tjurmina O, Damadzic R, Young WS, Weihe E, Lee H-W Eiden LE. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is a sympathoadrenal neurotransmitter involved in catecholamine regulation and glucohomeostasis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:461-466, 2002.
  45. Zhang B-J, Kusano K, Zerfas P, Iacangelo A, Young WS, Gainer H. Targeting of green fluorescent protein to secretory granules in oxytocin magnocellular neurons and its secretion from neurohypophysial nerve terminals in transgenic mice. Endocrinology 143:1036-1046, 2002.
  46. Foletta VC, Acharya S, Lee JW, Rayborn ME, Rodriguez IR, Young WS, Hollyfield JG. SPACRCAN, a novel human interphotoreceptor matrix hyaluronan-binding proteoglycan synthesized by photoreceptors and pinealocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 275:6945-6955, 2000.
  47. Glasgow E, Kusano K, Chin H, Mezey É, Young WS, Gainer H. Single cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of rat supraoptic magnocellular neurons: neuropeptide phenotypes and high voltage-gated calcium channel subtypes. Endocrinology 140: 5391-5401, 1999.
  48. Young WS, Iacangelo A, Luo X-ZL, King C, Duncan K, Ginns EI. Transgenic expression of green fluorescent protein in mouse oxytocin neurons. J. Neuroendocrinol. 11: 935-940, 1999.
  49. Palkovits M, Young WS, Kovács K, Tóth Zs, Makara GB. Alterations in corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression of central amygdaloid neurons following long-term paraventricular lesions and adrenalectomy. Neuroscience 85: 135-147, 1998
  50. Chawla MK, Gutierrez GM, Young WS, McMullen NT, Rance NE. Localization of neurons expressing substance P and neurokinin B gene transcripts in the human hypothalamus and basal forebrain. J. Comp. Neurol. 384: 429-442, 1997.
  51. Wagner K-U, Young WS, Liu X, Ginns EI, Li M, Furth PA, Hennighausen L. Oxytocin and milk removal are required for post-partum mammary gland development. Genes and Function 1: 233-244, 1997.
  52. Li M, Liu X, Robinson G, Bar-Peled U, Wagner K-U, Young WS, Hennighausen L. Furth PA. Mammary derived signals activate programmed cell death in the involuting gland. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 3425-3430, 1997.
  53. DeVries AC, Young WS, Nelson RJ. Reduced duration of aggressive behavior in mice with targeted disruption of the oxytocin gene. J. Neuroendocrinol. 9: 363-368, 1997. (Erratum: Figs. 1 and 2 are reversed)
  54. Wang X, Brownstein MJ, Young WS. PG25, a pineal-specific cDNA, cloned by differential display PCR (DDPCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). J. Neurosci. Meth. 73: 187-191, 1997.
  55. Malik KF, Jaffe H, Brady J, Young WS, The class, POU factor Brn-4 interacts with other class, POU factors and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. Mol. Brain Res. 45: 99-107, 1997.
  56. Young WS, Shepard E, Amico J, Hennighausen L, Wagner K-U, LaMarca ME, McKinney C, Ginns EI. Deficiency in mouse oxytocin prevents milk ejection, but not fertility or parturition. J. Neuroendocrinol. 8: 847-853, 1996.
  57. Aguilera G, Young W.S, Kiss A, Bathia A. Direct regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone neurons by angiotensin II. Neuroendocrinology 61: 437-444, 1995.
  58. Ostrowski, NL, Young WS, Lolait SJ. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression. Endocrinology 136: 1801-1804, 1995.
  59. Sukhov R, Walker LC, Rance NE, Price DL, Young WS. Opioid precursor gene expression in the human hypothalamus. J. Comp. Neurol. 353: 604-622, 1995.
  60. Ostrowski NL, Lolait SJ, Young WS. Cellular localization of vasopressin V1a receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in adult male rat brain, pineal, and brain vasculature. Endocrinology 135: 1511-1528, 1994.
  61. Sukhov RR, Walker LC, Rance NE, Price DL, Young WS. Vasopressin and oxytocin gene expression in the human hypothalamus. J. Comp. Neurol. 337 295-306, 1993.
  62. Ostrowski NJ, Young WS, Knepper MA, Lolait SJ. Expression of vasopressin V1a and V2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the liver and kidney of embryonic, developing and adult rats. Endocrinology 133: 1849-1859, 1993.
  63. Young WS, Kovács K, Lolait SJ. The diurnal rhythm in vasopressin V1a receptor expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus is not dependent on vasopressin. Endocrinology 133: 585-590, 1993.
  64. Young WS. Expression of the oxytocin and vasopressin genes. J. Neuroendocrinol. 4: 527-540, 1992.
  65. Belenky M, Castel M, Young WS, Gainer H, Cohen S. Ultrastructural immunolocalization of rat oxytocin-neurophysin in transgenic mice expressing the rat oxytocin gene. Brain Res. 583: 279-286, 1992.
  66. Ostrowski NL, Lolait SJ, Bradley DJ, O'Carroll A-M, Brownstein MJ, Young WS. Distribution of V1a and V2 vasopressin receptor messenger ribonucleic acids in rat liver, kidney, pituitary and brain. Endocrinology 131: 533-535, 1992.
  67. Bradley DJ, Towle HC, Young WS. Spatial and temporal expression of a and b thyroid hormone receptor mRNAs, including the b2 subtype, in the developing mammalian nervous system. J. Neurosci. 12: 2288-2302, 1992.
  68. Le Moine C, Young WS. RHS2, a new POU domain-containing gene, and its expression in the developing and adult rat. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 3285-3289, 1992.
  69. Young WS, Lightman SL. Chronic stress elevates enkephalin expression in the rat paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Mol. Brain Res. 13: 111-117, 1991.
  70. Aksentijevich S, Whitfield HJ Jr, Young WS, Wilder RL, Chrousos GP, Gold PW, Sternberg EM. Arthritis-susceptible Lewis rats fail to emerge from the stress hyporesponsive period. Develop. Brain Res. 65 115-118, 1991.
  71. Rance NE, Young WS. Hypertrophy and increased gene expression of neurons containing neurokinin-B and substance-P messenger ribonucleic acids in the hypothalami of postmenopausal women. Endocrinology 128 2239-2247, 1991
  72. Young WS, Reynolds K, Shepard EA, Gainer H, Castel M. Cell-specific expression of the rat oxytocin gene in transgenic mice. J. Neuroendocrinol. 6: 917-925 1990.
  73. Young, W.S, Horváth S, Palkovits M. The influences of hyperosmolality and synaptic inputs on galanin and vasopressin expression in the hypothalamus. Neuroscience 39: 115-125, 1990.
  74. Rance NE, McMullen NT, Smialek JE, Price DL, Young WS. Postmenopausal hypertrophy of neurons expressing the estrogen receptor gene in the human hypothalamus. J. Clin. Endocrin. Metab. 71 79-85, 1990.
  75. Young WS. Levels of transcripts encoding a member of the protein kinase C family in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are increased by hyperosmolality. J. Neuroendocrin. 1: 79-82, 1989.
  76. Sternberg EM, Young WS, Bernardini R, Calogero AE, Chrousos GP, Gold PW, Wilder RL. A central nervous system defect in corticotropin releasing hormone biosynthesis is associated with susceptibility to streptococcal cell wall arthritis in Lewis rats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 4771-4775, 1989.
  77. Lightman SL, Young WS. Influence of steroids on the hypothalamic CRF and enkephalin messenger ribonucleic acid responses to stress. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 4306-4310, 1989.
  78. Lightman SL, Young WS. Lactation inhibits stress mediated secretion of corticosterone and oxytocin and hypothalamic accumulation of CRF and enkephalin mRNA. Endocrinology 124: 2358-2364, 1989.
  79. Young WS. Simultaneous use of digoxigenin- and radiolabeled oligodeoxyribo-nucleotide probes for hybridization histochemistry. Neuropeptides 13 271-275 1989.
  80. Grino M, Young WS, Burgunder J-M. Ontogeny of the expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and of the proopiomelanocortin gene in the pituitary in rats. Endocrinology 124: 60-68, 1989.
  81. Rökaeus Å, Young WS, Mezey É. Galanin coexists with vasopressin in the normal rat hypothalamus and galanin's synthesis is increased in the brattleboro (diabetes insipidus) rat. Neurosci. Lett. 90 45-50, 1988.
  82. Lightman SL Young WS. Response of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor mRNA and pituitary proopiomelanocortin mRNA to stress, opiates and opiate withdrawal. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 403: 511-523, 1988.
  83. Young WS, Shepard EA, Burch RM. Plasma hyperosmolality increases G-protein and cAMP synthesis in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Molec. Endocrinol. 1: 884-888, 1987.
  84. Young WS, Warden M, Mezey, É. Tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA is increased by hyperosmotic stimuli in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Neuroendocrinology 46: 439-444, 1987.
  85. Lightman SL, Young WS. Changes in hypothalamic preproenkephalin A mRNA following stress and opiate withdrawal. Nature 328: 643-645, 1987.
  86. Lightman SL, Young WS. Vasopressin, oxytocin, dynorphin, enkephalin, and corticotrophin releasing factor mRNA stimulation in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 394: 23-39, 1987.
  87. Young WS, Bonner TI, Brann MR. Mesencephalic dopamine neurons regulate the expression of neuropeptide mRNAs in the rat forebrain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 9827-9831, 1986.
  88. Young WS, Mezey É, Siegel RE. Vasopressin and oxytocin mRNAs in adrenalectomized and Brattleboro rats: analysis by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. Mol. Brain Res. 1: 231-241, 1986.
  89. Young WS. Corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA in the hypothalamus is affected differently by drinking saline and by dehydration. FEBS Lett. 208: 158-162, 1986.
  90. Young WS, Mezey É, Siegel RE. Quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry reveals increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA after adrenalectomy in rats. Neurosci. Lett. 70: 198-203, 1986.
  91. Siegel RE, Young WS. Detection of preprocholecystokinin and preproenkephalin A mRNAs in rat brain by hybridization histochemistry using complementary RNA probes. Neuropeptides 6: 573-580, 1985.


Selected Bibliography of W. Scott Young prior to NIH

  1. Young WS, Alheid GF, Heimer L. The ventral pallidal projection to the mediodorsal thalamus: a study with fluorescent retrograde tracers and immunohistofluorescence. J. Neurosci. 4: 1626-38, 1984.
  2. Young WS, Wamsley JK, Zarbin MA, Kuhar MJ. Opioid receptors undergo axonal flow. Science. 210: 76-8, 1980.
  3. Goodman RR, Snyder SH, Kuhar MJ, Young WS. Differentiation of delta and mu opiate receptor localizations by light microscopic autoradiography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77: 6239-43, 1980.
  4. Young WS, Kuhar MJ. Noradrenergic alpha 1 and alpha 2 receptors: light microscopic autoradiographic localization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77: 1696-700, 1980.
  5. Young WS. A novel in vitro method for the light microscopic autoradiographic localization of drug and neurotransmitter receptors. PhD Thesis, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Eperimental Therapeutics. 1980. (pdf=58MB)
  6. Young WS, Kuhar MJ. A new method for receptor autoradiography: [3H]opioid receptors in rat brain. Brain Res. 179: 255-70, 1979.
  7. Young WS, Kuhar MJ. Autoradiographic localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in the brains of humans and animals. Nature. 280: 391-4, 1979.
  8. Young WS, Lietman PS. Chloramphenicol glucuronyl transferase: assay, ontogeny and inducibility. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 204:.203-11, 1978.
  9. Saier MH Jr, Young WS, Roseman S. Utilization and transport of hexoses by mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium lacking enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system. J. Biol. Chem. 246: 5838-40, 1971